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Laws of the F180 League 2006

Notes

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Male and Female

References to the male gender in the Laws with respect to referees, assistant referees, team members and officials are for simplification and apply to both males and females.

LAW 1 - The Field of Play

Dimensions

The field of play must be rectangular. The dimensions include boundary lines.


Figure 1: The field dimensions

Field Surface

The playing surface is green felt mat or carpet. The floor under the carpet is level, flat and hard.

The field surface will continue for 300 mm beyond the boundary lines on all sides. At the edge of the field surface, a wall will prevent the robots from running off the edge.

Field Markings

The field of play is marked with lines. Lines belong to the areas of which they are boundaries.

The two longer sides are called touch boundaries. The two shorter sides are called goal boundaries.

All lines are 10 mm wide and painted white.

The field of play is divided into two halves by a halfway line.

The centre mark is indicated at the midpoint of the halfway line. A circle with a diameter of 1000 mm is marked around it.

The Defence Area

A defence area is defined at each end of the field as follows:

A semicircular arc is drawn into the field of play with its centre at the midpoint between the goalposts and a radius of 500 mm.

The area bounded by this arc and the goal line is the defence area.

Penalty Mark

Within each defence area a penalty mark is made 450 mm from the midpoint between the goalposts and equidistant to them. The mark is a 10 mm diameter circle of white paint.

Goals

Goals must be placed on the centre of each goal boundary.

They consist of two 150 mm vertical side walls joined at the back by a 150 mm vertical rear wall. These faces of these walls facing into the goal are painted blue at one end of the field and yellow at the other end of the field. The edges and tops of the walls are painted white.

There is a cross wire that rests on top of the side walls running along the goalmouth line. The cross wire must be sufficiently strong to deflect the ball. The wire must be of a transparent or translucent material such as fishing line.

There is a round steel cross bar that runs across the top of the goalmouth and parallel to the goal line. It is no larger than 10 mm in diameter, but is sufficiently strong to deflect the ball. The bottom of the bar is 150 mm from the field surface, and the bar is dark in color to minimise interference with vision systems. The top of the goal is covered in a thin net to prevent the ball from entering the goal from above. It is attached securely to the cross bar and goal walls.

The distance between the side walls is 700 mm. The goal is 180 mm deep. The distance from the lower edge of the crosswire to the playing surface is 150 mm.

The floor inside the goalmouth is the same as the rest of the playing surface.

The walls have the same thickness as the line markings, 10 mm.

The goal walls are 20 mm thick.

Goals must be anchored securely to field surface.


Figure 2: The Goal in detail

Equipment Mounting Bar

A mounting bar will be provided 4 m above the field. The bar will run above the midline of the field from goal to goal.

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

The local organising committee should aim to provide uniform, diffuse lighting conditions of approximately 500 LUX or brighter. From 2004 onwards, no special lighting equipment will be used to provide these conditions. The organising committee will release details of the lighting arrangements should be released to the competitors as early as practical.

  • Decision 2

No kind of commercial advertising, whether real or virtual, is permitted on the field of play and field equipment (including the goal nets and the areas they enclose) from the time the teams enter the field of play until they have left it at half-time and from the time the teams re-enter the field of play until the end of the match. In particular, no advertising material of any kind may be displayed inside the goals or walls. No extraneous equipment (cameras, microphones, etc.) may be attached to these items.

  • Decision 3

The specific colour and texture of the surface is not specified and may vary from competition to competition (just as real soccer fields vary). The surface underneath the carpet will be level and hard. Examples of approved surfaces include: cement, linoleum, hardwood flooring, plywood, ping-pong tables and particle board; carpeted or cushioned surfaces are not allowed. Every effort shall be made to ensure that the surface is flat; however, it is up to individual teams to design their robots to cope with slight curvatures of the surface.

  • Decision 4

Where games involve a team that uses local vision (the robots carry their own cameras) then the local organising committee will provide a 100 mm tall secondary white wall at a distance of 300 mm from the boundary of the field to prevent interference with the vision system.

LAW 2 - The Ball

Qualities and Measurements

The ball is a standard orange golf ball. It is:

  • spherical
  • orange in colour
  • approximately 46 g in mass
  • approximately 43 mm in diameter

Replacement of a Defective Ball

If the ball becomes defective during the course of a match:

  • the match is stopped
  • the match is restarted by placing the replacement ball at the place where the first ball became defective

If the ball becomes defective whilst not in play at a kick-off, goal kick, corner kick, free kick, penalty kick or throw-in:

  • the match is restarted accordingly

The ball may not be changed during the match without the authority of the referee.

LAW 3 - The Number of Robots

Robots

A match is played by two teams, each consisting of not more than five robots, one of which may be the goalkeeper. Each robot must be clearly numbered so that the referee can identify them during the match. The goalkeeper must be designated before the match starts. A match may not start unless both teams have at least one robot.

Interchange

Robots may be interchanged. There is no limit on the number of interchanges.

Interchange Procedure

To interchange a robot, the following conditions must be observed:

  • interchange can only be made during a stoppage in play,
  • the referee is informed before the proposed interchange is made,
  • the interchange robot enters the field of play after the robot being replaced has been removed,
  • interchange robot enters the field of play at the halfway line.

Changing the Goalkeeper

Any of the other robots may change places with the goalkeeper, provided that:

  • the referee is informed before the change is made
  • the change is made during a stoppage in the match

Robots Sent Off

A robot that has been sent off may interchange for another robot that leaves the field.

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

Each team must have a single designated robot handler to perform interchange and robot placing when required. No other team members can encroach upon the area immediately surrounding the field. Movement of robots by the handler is not allowed.

LAW 4 - The Robotic Equipment

Safety

A robot must not have in its construction anything that is dangerous to itself, another robot or humans.

Shape

A robot must fit inside a 180 mm diameter cylinder. If a team is using the global vision system, each robot on that team must have height of 150 mm or less. In all cases, a robot must have height less than 225 mm.


Figure 3: The maximum robot dimensions

Colours and Markers

Before a game, each of the two teams has a colour assigned, namely yellow or blue. Each team must be able to use yellow and blue markers either yellow or blue markers . Circular markers of the assigned colour must be mounted on top of the robots. The centre of the marker must be located in the visual centre of the robot when viewed from above. The markers must have a diameter of 50 mm.

Robots may use black and white colouring without restriction. Robots may also use light green, light pink and cyan markers.

Locomotion

Robot wheels (or other surfaces that contact the playing surface) must be made of a material that does not harm the playing surface.

Wireless Communication

Robots can use wireless communication to computers or networks located off the field.

Global Vision System

The use of a global vision system or external distributed vision systems are permitted, but not required, to identify and track the position of robots and ball. This is achieved by using one or more cameras. Cameras may not protrude more than 150 mm below the bottom of the mounting beam provided above the field (Law 1).

Autonomy

The robotic equipment is to be fully autonomous. Human operators are not permitted to enter any information into the equipment during a match, except at half time or during a time-out.

Dribbling

Dribbling devices that actively exert backspin on the ball, which keep the ball in contact with the robot are permitted under certain conditions. The spin exerted on the ball must be perpendicular to the plane of the field. Vertical or partially vertical dribbling bars, also known as side dribblers, are not permitted. The use of dribbling devices is also restricted as per Law 12, Indirect Free Kicks.


Figure 4: How a dribbler may work (check figure 5 for further detail on the 20% rule)

Infringements/Sanctions

For any infringement of this Law:

  • play need not be stopped
  • the robot at fault is instructed by the referee to leave the field of play to correct its equipment
  • the robot leaves the field of play when the ball next ceases to be in play
  • any robot required to leave the field of play to correct its equipment does not re-enter without the referee's permission
  • the referee checks that the robot's equipment is correct before allowing it to re-enter the field of play
  • the robot is only allowed to re-enter the field of play when the ball is out of play

A robot that has been required to leave the field of play because of an infringement of this Law and that enters (or re-enters) the field of play without the referee's permission is cautioned and shown the yellow card.

Restart of Play

If play is stopped by the referee to administer a caution:

  • the match is restarted by an indirect free kick taken by a robot of the opposing side, from the place where the ball was located when the referee stopped the match

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

Participants using wireless communications shall notify the local organising committee of the method of wireless communication, power, and frequency. The local organising committee shall be notified of any change after registration as soon as possible.

In order to avoid interference, a team should be able to select from two carrier frequencies before the match. The type of wireless communication shall follow legal regulations of the country where the competition is held. Compliance with local laws is the responsibility of the competing teams, not the RoboCup Federation. The type of wireless communication may also be restricted by the local organising committee. The local organising committee will announce any restrictions to the community as early as possible.

  • Decision 2

Kicking devices are permitted.

  • Decision 3

Metal spikes and Velcro are specifically prohibited for the purpose of locomotion.

  • Decision 4

Bluetooth wireless communication is not allowed.

  • Decision 5

Official colours will be provided by the organising committee. Teams must use the official colours unless both teams agree not to.

LAW 5 - The Referee

The Authority of the Referee

Each match is controlled by a referee who has full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed.

Powers and Duties

The Referee:

  • enforces the Laws of the Game
  • controls the match in co-operation with the assistant referee
  • ensures that any ball used meets the requirements of Law 2
  • ensures that the robotic equipment meets the requirements of Law 4
  • informs the assistant referee when periods of time lost begin and end in accordance with Law 7
  • stops, suspends or terminates the match, at his discretion, for any infringements of the Laws
  • stops, suspends or terminates the match because of outside interference of any kind
  • stops the match if, in his opinion, a robot is likely to cause serious harm to humans, other robots or itself and ensures that it is removed from the field of play
  • repositions the ball to a neutral position if it becomes stuck during play
  • allows play to continue when the team against which an offence has been committed will benefit from such an advantage and penalises the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue at that time
  • punishes the more serious offence when a robot commits more than one offence at the same time
  • takes disciplinary action against robots guilty of cautionable and sending-off offences. He is not obliged to take this action immediately but must do so when the ball next goes out of play
  • takes action against team officials who fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner and may at his discretion, expel them from the field of play and its immediate surrounds
  • acts on the advice of assistant referees regarding incidents which he has not seen
  • ensures that no unauthorised persons encroach the field of play
  • restarts the match after it has been stopped
  • provides the technical committee with a match report which includes information on any disciplinary action taken against team officials and any other incidents which occurred before, during or after the match

Decisions of the Referee

The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play are final.

The referee may only change a decision on realising that it is incorrect or, at his discretion, on the advice of an assistant referee, provided that he has not restarted play.

Referee's Signalling Equipment

A device will be supplied to convert the referee's signals into a serial communication signal that is transmitted to both teams. The equipment will be operated by the assistant referee. Details of the equipment are to be supplied by the local organising committee before the competition.

Signals from the Referee

During a match the referee will signal the start and stop of play in the usual fashion. The assistant referee will send signals reflecting the referee's call over serial communication links to each team. No interpretation of the referee's signals by human operators is permitted.

The whistle signal indicates that the referee has stopped play, and that all robots should move 500 mm from the ball to allow the referee to place the ball for a restart. All robots are required to remain 500 mm from the ball as the ball is moved to the restart position.

For a goal (Law 10), or caution or send off (Law 12), an informational signal will be sent to indicate the referee's decision.

The restart signal will indicate the type of restart. Robots should move into legal positions upon receipt of this signal. For restarts other than a kick-off (Law 8) or a penalty kick (Law 14), the kicker may kick the ball when ready without further signals from the referee.

For a kick-off (Law 8) or a penalty kick (Law 14), a start signal will be sent to indicate that the kicker may proceed. This signal will not be sent for other types of restart.

Signals indicating periods of time-out and time lost will also be sent when required.

The referee will be deemed to have given a signal when the assistant referee has relayed that signal over the serial communications links.

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

A referee (or where applicable, an assistant referee) is not held liable for:

  • any kind of injury suffered by an official or spectator
  • any damage to property of any kind
  • any other loss suffered by any individual, club, company, association or other body, which is due or which may be due to any decision which he may take under the terms of the Laws of the Game or in respect of the normal procedures required to hold, play and control a match.

This may include:

  • a decision that the condition of the field of play or its surrounds are such as to allow or not to allow a match to take place
  • a decision to abandon a match for whatever reason
  • a decision as to the condition of the fixtures or equipment used during a match including the field and the ball
  • a decision to stop or not to stop a match due to spectator interference or any problem in the spectator area
  • a decision to stop or not to stop play to allow a damaged robot to be removed from the field of play for repair
  • a decision to request or insist that a damaged robot be removed from the field of play for repair
  • a decision to allow or not to allow a robot to have certain colours
  • a decision (in so far as this may be his responsibility) to allow or not to allow any persons (including team or stadium officials, security officers, photographers or other media representatives) to be present in the vicinity of the field of play
  • any other decision which he may take in accordance with the Laws of the Game or in conformity with his duties under the terms of the RoboCup Federation or league rules or regulations under which the match is played
  • Decision 2

Facts connected with play shall include whether a goal is scored or not and the result of the match.

  • Decision 3

The referee should use a black stick or some other device when repositioning the ball to reduce the chance of interference with vision systems.

LAW 6 - The Assistant Referee

Duties

The assistant referee is appointed whose duties, subject to the decision of the referee, are to:

  • act as timekeeper and keep a record of the match
  • to operate the serial communications equipment to relay the referee's signals over the serial communications links
  • monitor the robot operators for illegal signals being sent to the robots
  • indicate when an interchange is requested
  • indicate when misconduct or any other incident has occurred out of the view of the referee
  • indicate when offences have been committed whenever the assistants are closer to the action than the referee (this includes, in particular circumstances, offences committed in the defence area)
  • indicate whether, at penalty kicks, the goalkeeper has moved forward before the ball has been kicked and if the ball has crossed the line

Assistance

The assistant referees also assist the referee to control the match in accordance with the Laws of the Game. In the event of undue interference or improper conduct, the referee will relieve an assistant referee of his duties and make a report to the organising committee.

LAW 7 - The Duration of the Match

Periods of Play

The match lasts two equal periods of 15 minutes 10 minutes, unless otherwise mutually agreed between the referee and the two participating teams. Any agreement to alter the periods of play (for example, to reduce each half to 7 minutes because of a limited schedule) must be made before the start of play and must comply with competition rules.

Half-Time Interval

Teams are entitled to an interval at half time. The half-time interval must not exceed 5 minutes 10 minutes. Competition rules must state the duration of the half-time interval. The duration of the half-time interval may be altered only with the consent of both teams and the referee.

Timeouts

Each team is allocated four timeouts at the beginning of the match. A total of 10 minutes is allowed for all timeouts. For example, a team may take three timeouts of one-minute duration and thereafter have only one timeout of up to seven minutes duration. Timeouts may only be taken during a break in play. The time is monitored and recorded by the assistant referee.

Allowance for Time Lost

Allowance is made in either period for all time lost through:

  • substitution(s)
  • assessment of damage to robots
  • removal of damaged robots from the field of play for treatment
  • wasting time
  • any other cause

The allowance for time lost is at the discretion of the referee.

Extra Time

Competition rules may provide for two further equal periods to be played. The conditions of Law 8 will apply.

Abandoned Match

An abandoned match is replayed unless the competition rules provide otherwise.

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

The local organising committee will make every effort to provide both teams access to the competition area at least two hours before the start of the competition. They will also strive to allow at least one hour of setup time before each match. Participants should be aware, however, that conditions may arise where this much time cannot be provided.

LAW 8 - The Start and Restart of Play

Preliminaries

If both teams have a common preferred frequency for wireless communications, the local organising committee will allocate that frequency for the first half of the match. If both teams have a common preferred color, the local organising committee will allocate the color for the first half of the match.

A coin is tossed and the team which wins the toss decides which goal it will attack in the first half of the match.

The other team takes the kick-off to start the match.

The team that wins the toss takes the kick-off to start the second half of the match.

In the second half of the match the teams change ends and attack the opposite goals. Teams may agree not to change ends and attack the opposite goals with the consent of the referee.

If both teams have a common preferred frequency for wireless communications, the teams should swap the allocation of that frequency for the second half of the match. Teams may agree not to change the allocation of the preferred frequency with the consent of the referee.

If both teams have a common preferred marker color, the teams should swap marker colors for the second half of the match. Teams may agree not to change the marker colors with the consent of the referee.

Kick-off

A kick-off is a way of starting or restarting play:

  • at the start of the match
  • after a goal has been scored
  • at the start of the second half of the match
  • at the start of each period of extra time, where applicable

A goal may be scored directly from the kick-off.

Procedure

  • all robots are in their own half of the field
  • the opponents of the team taking the kick-off are at least 500 mm from the ball until the ball is in play
  • the ball is stationary on the centre mark
  • the referee gives a signal
  • the ball is in play when is kicked and moves forward
  • the kicker does not touch the ball a second time until it has touched another robot

After a team scores a goal, the kick-off is taken by the other team.

Infringements/Sanctions

Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

If the kicker touches the ball a second time before it has touched another robot:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred

If the kicker touches the ball and the centre of the ball reaches a height of 150mm before touching the ground:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the ball was kicked

For any other infringement of the kick-off procedure:

  • the kick-off is retaken

Placed Ball

A placed ball is a way of restarting the match after a temporary stoppage which becomes necessary, while the ball is in play, for any reason not mentioned elsewhere in the Laws of the Game.

Procedure

The referee places the ball at the place where it was located when play was stopped. By Law 9, all robots are required to remain 500mm from the ball while the ball is being placed. Play restarts when the referee gives a signal.

Infringements/Sanctions

The ball is placed again:

  • if a robot comes within 500 mm of the ball before the referee gives the signal

Special Circumstances

A free kick awarded to the defending team inside its own defence area is taken from the free kick mark nearest to where the infringement occurred.

A free kick awarded to the attacking team in its opponents' defence area is taken from the free kick mark nearest to where the infringement occurred.

A placed ball to restart the match after play has been temporarily stopped inside the defence area takes place on the free kick mark nearest to where the ball was located when play was stopped.

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the start signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

LAW 9 - The Ball In and Out of Play

Ball Out of Play

The ball is out of play when:

  • it has wholly crossed the goal boundary or touch boundary whether on the ground or in the air
  • play has been stopped by a signal from the referee

When the ball goes out of play, robots should remain 500 mm from the ball as the ball is placed, until the restart signal is given by the referee.

Ball In Play

The ball is in play at all other times.

Infringements/Sanctions

If, after the ball enters play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

  • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see Law 13)

If, after the ball enters play, the kicker deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

  • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see Law 13)

If, after a signal to restart play is given, the ball does not enter play within 10 seconds, or lack of progress clearly indicates that the ball will not enter play within 10 seconds:

  • a neutral restart is indicated

Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

  • Decision 1

For all restarts where the Laws stipulate that the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves, the robot must clearly tap or kick the ball to make it move. It is understood that the ball may remain in contact with the robot over a short distance while the kick is being taken, but under no circumstances should the robot travel further than 50mm with the ball. It may not use a dribbling device to exert back spin on the ball. It is understood that the ball may remain in contact with the robot or be bumped by the robot multiple times over a short distance while the kick is being taken, but under no circumstances should the robot remain in contact or touch the ball after it has traveled 50 mm, unless the ball has previously touched another robot. Robots may use dribbling and kicking devices in taking the free kick.

LAW 10 - The Method of Scoring

Goal Scored

A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goal walls, below the crosswire, provided that no infringement of the Laws of the Game has been committed previously by the team scoring the goal.

Winning Team

The team scoring the greater number of goals during a match is the winner. If both teams score an equal number of goals, or if no goals are scored, the match is drawn.

Competition Rules

For matches ending in a draw, competition rules may state provisions involving extra time, or other procedures approved by the RoboCup Federation to determine the winner of a match.

LAW 11 - Offside

Offside Rule

The offside rule is not adopted.

LAW 12 - Fouls and Misconduct

Fouls and misconduct are penalised as follows:

Direct Free Kick

A direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if a robot commits any of the following five offences:

  • makes substantial contact with an opponent
  • holds an opponent
  • holds the ball deliberately (except for the goalkeeper within his own defence area)
  • is the second defending robot to simultaneously enter the team's defence area in such a way to substantially affect game play
  • is the second attacking robot to simultaneously enter the opponent team's defence area

A free kick is taken from where the offence occurred.

Penalty Kick

A penalty kick is awarded if any of the above five offences is committed by a robot inside his own defence area, irrespective of the position of the ball, provided it is in play.

Indirect Free Kicks

An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if a goalkeeper, inside his own defence area, commits any of the following offences:

  • takes more than fifteen seconds while holding the ball before releasing it from his possession
  • holds the ball again after it has been released from his possession and has not touched any other robot
  • releases the ball and it reaches the half way line without touching any other robot.

An indirect free kick is also awarded to the opposing team if a robot:

  • contacts the goalkeeper where the point of contact is in the defence area
  • dribbles the ball over a distance greater than 500 mm
  • touched the ball such that the top of the ball travels more than 150 mm from the ground, and the ball subsequently enters their opponent's goal, without having either touched a teammate (while below 150 mm) or remained in contact with the ground (stopped bouncing).
  • commits any other offence, not previously mentioned in Law 12, for which play is stopped to caution or dismiss a robot

    The free kick is taken from where the offence occurred.

    Disciplinary Sanctions

    Cautionable Offences

    A team is cautioned and shown the yellow card if a robot on that team commits any of the following six offences:

    1. is guilty of unsporting behaviour
    2. is guilty of serious and violent contact
    3. persistently infringes the Laws of the Game
    4. delays the restart of play
    5. fails to respect the required distance when play is restarted with a goal kick, corner kick or free kick
    6. modifies or damages the field or ball

    Upon receipt of a yellow card, one robot of the penalised team must immediately move off and be removed from the field. After two minutes of play (as measured by the assistant referee using the official game time) the robot may reenter the field at the next stoppage of play.

    Sending-Off Offences

    One robot is sent off and shown the red card if its team receives a second caution. The number of robots on the team is reduced by one after every two yellow cards.

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    Substantial contact is contact sufficient to dislodge the robot from its current orientation, position, or motion in the case where it is moving. When both robots are moving at similar speeds, and the cause of contact is not obvious, the referee will allow play to continue. This law is designed to protect robots which are slow moving or stationary at the time of the contact, and as such should be detected by obstacle avoidance systems.

    • Decision 2

    Cautions for serious and violent contact are a way to discourage teams from ignoring the spirit of the no-contact principle. Examples of cautionable offences include uncontrolled motion, poor obstacle avoidance, pushing, or rapid spinning while adjacent to an opponent. In a typical scenario, the referee would warn the team, and expect that they would modify their system to reduce the violence of their play. If the referee was still unsatisfied a caution would be issued.

    • Decision 3

    A robot that is placed on the field but is clearly not capable of movement will be sanctioned for unsporting behaviour.

    • Decision 4

    A robot is holding a ball if it takes full control of the ball by removing all of its degrees of freedom; typically, fixing a ball to the body or surrounding a ball using the body to prevent access by others. 80% of the area of the ball when viewed from above should be outside the convex hull around the robot. Another robot must be able to remove the ball from another robot a robot with the ball. This limitation applies as well to all dribbling and kicking devices, even if such infringement is momentary.


    Figure 5: The 80/20 ball covering/holding rule
    • Decision 5

    A robot begins dribbling when it makes contact with the ball and stops dribbling when there is an observable separation between the ball and the robot.

    The restriction on dribbling distance was added to prevent a robot with a mechanically superior dribbler having unchallenged control of the ball. The distance restriction still allows dribblers to be used to aim and receive passes, turn around with the ball, and stop with the ball. Dribblers can still be used to dribble large distances with the ball as long as the robot periodically loses possession, such as kicking the ball ahead of it as human soccer players often do. The technical committee expects the distance rule to be self-enforced, i.e., teams will insure their software complies beforehand and may be asked to demonstrate this prior to a competition. Referees, though, will still call fouls for violations and may give a caution (yellow card) for situations of repeated violations.

    LAW 13 - Free Kicks

    Types of Free Kicks

    Free kicks are either direct or indirect.

    For both direct and indirect free kicks, the ball must be stationary when the kick is taken and the kicker does not touch the ball a second time until it has touched another robot.

    The Direct Free Kick

    • if a free kick is kicked directly into the opponents' goal, a goal is awarded.
    • if a free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a goal is awarded against the team.

    The Indirect Free Kick

    Signal

    The referee indicates an indirect free kick by raising his arm above his head. He maintains his arm in that position until the kick has been taken and the ball has touched another robot or goes out of play.

    Ball Enters the Goal

    A goal can be scored only if the ball subsequently touches another robot before it enters the goal.

    • if an indirect free kick is kicked directly into the opponents' goal, a goal kick is awarded
    • if an indirect free kick is kicked directly into the team's own goal, a corner kick is awarded to the opposing team

    Free Kick Procedure

    If the free kick is awarded inside the defence area, the free kick is taken from a point 600 mm from the goal line and 100 mm from the touch line on the touch line that is closest to where the infringement occurred.

    If the free kick is awarded to the attacking team within 700 mm of the defence area, the ball is moved to the closest point 700 mm from the defence area.

    Otherwise the free kick is taken from the place where the infringement occurred.

    All opponent robots are at least 500 mm from the ball.

    The ball is in play when it is kicked and moves.

    Infringements/Sanctions

    If, when a free kick is taken, an opponent is closer to the ball than the required distance:

    • the kick is retaken

    Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

    Free kick taken by a robot other than the goalkeeper

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see above)

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see above)
    • a penalty kick is awarded if the infringement occurred inside the kicker's defence area

    Free kick taken by the goalkeeper

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball), before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see above)

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred outside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see above)
    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred inside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred * (see above)

    If the kicker touches the ball and the centre of the ball reaches a height of 150mm before touching the ground:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred

    For any other infringement of this Law:

    • the kick is retaken

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the free kick or indirect free kick signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

    LAW 14 - The Penalty Kick

    A penalty kick is awarded against a team which commits one of the five offences for which a direct free kick is awarded, inside its own defence area and while the ball is in play.

    A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick.

    Additional time is allowed for a penalty kick to be taken at the end of each half or at the end of periods of extra time.

    Position of the Ball and the Robots

    The ball:

    • is placed on the penalty mark

    The robot taking the penalty kick:

    • is properly identified

    The defending goalkeeper:

    • remains on its goal line, facing the kicker, between the goalposts until the ball has been kicked

    The robots other than the kicker are located:

    • inside the field of play
    • at least 400 mm behind the penalty mark
    • behind a line parrallel to the goal line and 400 mm behind the penalty mark

    The Referee

    • does not signal for a penalty kick to be taken until the robots have taken up position in accordance with the Law
    • decides when a penalty kick has been completed

    Procedure

    • the robot taking the penalty kicks the ball forward
    • it does not play the ball a second time until it has touched another robot
    • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves forward

    When a penalty kick is taken during the normal course of play, or time has been extended at half-time or full time to allow a penalty kick to be taken or retaken, a goal is awarded if, before passing between the goalposts and under the crossbar:

    • the ball touches either or both of the goalposts and/or the crossbar, and/or the goalkeeper

    Infringements/Sanctions

    If the referee gives the signal for a penalty kick to be taken and, before the ball is in play, one of the following situations occurs:

    The robot taking the penalty kick infringes the Laws of the Game:

    • the referee allows the kick to proceed
    • if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
    • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken

    The goalkeeper infringes the Laws of the Game:

    • the referee allows the kick to proceed
    • if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
    • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken

    A team-mate of the robot taking the kick enters the area 400 mm behind the penalty mark:

    • the referee allows the kick to proceed
    • if the ball enters the goal, the kick is retaken
    • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is not retaken
    • if the ball rebounds from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goal post and is touched by this robot, the referee stops play and restarts the match with an indirect free kick to the defending team

    A team-mate of the goalkeeper enters the area 400mm behind the penalty mark:

    • the referee allows the kick to proceed
    • if the ball enters the goal, a goal is awarded
    • if the ball does not enter the goal, the kick is retaken

    A robot of both the defending team and the attacking team infringe the Laws of the Game:

    • the kick is retaken

    If, after the penalty kick has been taken:

    Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

    The kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    The kicker holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    The ball is touched by an outside agent as it moves forward:

    • the kick is retaken

    The ball rebounds into the field of play from the goalkeeper, the crossbar or the goalposts, and is then touched by an outside agent:

    • the referee stops play
    • play is restarted with a dropped ball at the place where it touched the outside agent* (see Law 13)

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the start signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

    LAW 15 - The Throw-In

    A throw-in is a method of restarting play.

    A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in.

    A throw-in is awarded:

    • when the whole of the ball passes over the touch boundary, either on the ground or in the air
    • from the point 100 mm perpendicular to the touch boundary where the ball crossed the touch boundary
    • to the opponents of the robot that last touched the ball

    Procedure

    • The referee places the ball at the designated position.
    • All opponent robots are at least 500 mm from the ball.
    • The ball is in play when it is kicked and moves.

    Infringements/Sanctions

    If, when a throw-in is taken, an opponent is closer to the ball than the required distance:

    • the throw-in is retaken

    Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

    Throw-in taken by a robot other than the goalkeeper

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • a penalty kick is awarded if the infringement occurred inside the kicker's defence area

    Throw-in taken by the goalkeeper:

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball), before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred outside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred inside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If the kicker touches the ball and the centre of the ball reaches a height of 150mm before touching the ground:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred

    For any other infringement:

    • the kick is retaken

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the free kick\indirect free kick\start signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

    LAW 16 - The Goal Kick

    A goal kick is a method of restarting play.

    A goal may be scored directly from a goal kick, but only against the opposing team.

    A goal kick is awarded when:

    • the whole of the ball, having last touched a robot of the attacking team, passes over the goal boundary, either on the ground or in the air, and a goal is not scored in accordance with Law 10.

    Procedure

    • the ball is kicked from a point 500 mm from the goal line and 100 mm from the touch line on the touch line that is closest to where the ball passed over the goal boundary
    • opponents remain 500 mm from the ball until the ball is in play
    • the kicker does not play the ball a second time until it has touched another robot
    • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves

    Infringements/Sanctions

    Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

    Goal kick taken by a robot other than the goalkeeper

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • a penalty kick is awarded if the infringement occurred inside the kicker's defence area

    Goal kick taken by the goalkeeper:

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred outside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred inside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If the kicker touches the ball and the centre of the ball reaches a height of 150mm before touching the ground:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred

    For any other infringement of this Law:

    • the kick is retaken

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the free kick or indirect free kick signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

    LAW 17 - The Corner Kick

    A corner kick is a method of restarting play.

    A goal may be scored directly from a corner kick, but only against the opposing team.

    A corner kick is awarded when:

    • the whole of the ball, having last touched a robot of the defending team, passes over the goal line, either on the ground or in the air, and a goal is not scored in accordance with Law 10

    Procedure

    • the ball is kicked from the nearest corner, 100mm in from both the goal line and the touch line
    • opponents remain 500 mm from the ball until the ball is in play
    • the kicker does not play the ball a second time until it has touched another robot
    • the ball is in play when it is kicked and moves

    Infringements/Sanctions

    Any infringement as listed in Law 9 is handled accordingly

    Corner kick taken by a robot other than the goalkeeper:

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the kicker deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • a penalty kick is awarded if the infringement occurred inside the kicker's defence area

    Corner kick taken by the goalkeeper:

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper touches the ball a second time (without holding the ball) before it has touched another robot:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If, after the ball is in play, the goalkeeper deliberately holds the ball before it has touched another robot:

    • a direct free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred outside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)
    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if the infringement occurred inside the goalkeeper's defence area, the kick to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred* (see Law 13)

    If the kicker touches the ball and the centre of the ball reaches a height of 150mm before touching the ground:

    • an indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team to be taken from the place where the infringement occurred

    For any other infringement:

    • the kick is retaken

    Decisions of the F180 Technical Committee

    • Decision 1

    A neutral restart serial signal will be automatically sent 10 seconds after the free kick or indirect free kick signal, unless another serial signal is sent within this time. This decision provides a mechanism for automatically restarting play for when a team is unable to bring the ball back into play.

  •  Faculty Advisor and Research Group Director - Dr. Alfredo Weitzenfeld  
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